Overview[ edit ] The challenge for the psychology of religion is essentially threefold: The first, descriptive task naturally requires a clarification of one's terms—above all, the word religion. Historians of religion have long underscored the problematic character of this term, noting that its usage over the centuries has changed in significant ways, generally in the direction of reification. The justification and adequacy of these efforts, especially in the light of constructivist and other postmodern viewpoints, remains a matter of debate.
In philosophy[ edit ] Philosophically, "individuation" expresses the general idea of how a thing is identified as an individual thing that "is not something else". This includes how an individual person is held to be distinct from other elements in the world and how a person is distinct from other persons.
In Jungian psychology[ edit ] In Jungian psychologyalso called analytical psychologyindividuation is the process in which the individual self develops out of an undifferentiated unconscious — seen as a developmental psychic process during which innate Psychology papers about dreams of personality, the components of the immature psycheand the experiences of the person's life become, if the process is more or less successful, integrated over time into a well-functioning whole.
This differs from the traditional mass-media practice of producing the same contents for all readers, viewers, listeners, or online users.
Communications theorist Marshall McLuhan alluded to this trend[ need quotation to verify ] when discussing[ when? Two or more states in quantum superpositione. The Heisenberg's uncertainty principle says that complementary variablessuch as position and momentumcannot both be precisely known - in some sense, they are not individual variables.
A natural criterion of individuality has been suggested. In his view, the mere difference in location suffices to make two systems different, with each of the two states having its own real physical state, independent of the state of the other.
This view influenced Einstein. Carl Jung According to Jungian psychologyindividuation German: Individuation is a process of psychological integration. It is a completely natural process necessary for the integration of the psyche.
Gilbert Simondon In L'individuation psychique et collective, Gilbert Simondon developed a theory of individual and collective individuation in which the individual subject is considered as an effect of individuation rather than a cause.
Thus, the individual atom is replaced by a never-ending ontological process of individuation. Simondon also conceived of "pre-individual fields" which make individuation possible.
Individuation is an ever-incomplete process, always leaving a "pre-individual" left over, which makes possible future individuations. Furthermore, individuation always creates both an individual subject and a collective subject, which individuate themselves concurrently.
Bernard Stiegler The philosophy of Bernard Stiegler draws upon and modifies the work of Gilbert Simondon on individuation and also upon similar ideas in Friedrich Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud.
During a talk given at the Tate Modern art gallery in Stiegler summarized his understanding of individuation.
The essential points are the following: The I, as a psychic individual, can only be thought in relationship to we, which is a collective individual. This inheritance is an adoption, in that I can very well, as the French grandson of a German immigrant, recognize myself in a past which was not the past of my ancestors but which I can make my own.
This process of adoption is thus structurally factual. The I is essentially a process, not a state, and this process is an in-dividuation — it is a process of psychic individuation.Background.
SYCHOLOGICAL tests aren’t magic, so let’s get that clear right at the leslutinsduphoenix.com assess and evaluate information that you give to the examiner, which is why the formal name of psychological testing is psychological leslutinsduphoenix.com give this information either in the form of answers to interview questions or as answers on paper—or on a computer—to specific questions.
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Finding a solid topic is one of the most important steps when writing any type of paper. It can be particularly important when you are writing a psychology research paper or essay.
Professor Richard Gregory's Web Site. Includes full versions of many of his scientific papers. Behaviorism is a major trend in psychology, one that directly follows from functionalism, the branch of psychology that focuses on the biological significance of natural processes, including behavior.