Influence and persuasion

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Influence and persuasion

Classical conditioning Conditioning plays a huge part in the concept of persuasion. It is more often about leading someone into taking certain actions of their own, rather than giving direct commands.

Great examples of this are professional athletes. They are paid to connect themselves to things that can be directly related to their roles; sport shoes, tennis rackets, golf balls, or completely irrelevant things like soft drinks, popcorn poppers and panty hose.

The important thing for the advertiser is to establish a connection to the consumer. Just like you sometimes recall a memory from a certain smell or sound, the objective of some ads is solely to bring back certain emotions when you see their logo in your local store.

The hope is that repeating the message several times makes consumers more likely to purchase the product because they already connect it with a good emotion and positive experience.

Stefano DellaVigna and Matthew Gentzkow did a comprehensive study on the effects of persuasion in different domains. They discovered that persuasion has little or no effect on advertisement; however, there was a substantial effect of persuasion on voting if there was face-to-face contact.

Cognitive dissonance Leon Festinger originally proposed the theory of cognitive dissonance in He theorized that human beings constantly strive for mental consistency. Our cognition thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes can be in agreement, unrelated, or in disagreement with each other.

Our cognition can also be in agreement or disagreement with our behaviors. When we detect conflicting cognition, or dissonance, it gives us a sense of incompleteness and discomfort. For example, a person who is addicted to smoking cigarettes but also suspects it could be detrimental to his health suffers from cognitive dissonance.

Festinger suggests that we are motivated to reduce this dissonance until our cognition is in harmony with itself. We strive for mental consistency.

Cialdini’s Six Principles of Influence

There are four main ways we go about reducing or eliminating our dissonance: Revisiting the example of the smoker, he can either quit smoking, reduce the importance of his health, convince himself he is not at risk, or that the reward of smoking is worth the cost of his health.

Cognitive dissonance is powerful when it relates to competition and self-concept. Elaboration likelihood model Persuasion has traditionally been associated with two routes.

Whereby an individual evaluates information presented to them based on the pros and cons of it and how well it supports their values Peripheral route: Change is mediated by how attractive the source of communication is and by bypassing the deliberation process. It holds that the probability of effective persuasion depends on how successful the communication is at bringing to mind a relevant mental representation, which is the elaboration likelihood.

Thus if the target of the communication is personally relevant, this increases the elaboration likelihood of the intended outcome and would be more persuasive if it were through the central route. Communication which does not require careful thought would be better suited to the peripheral route.

A main motivation for individuals is to increase positive external rewards and minimize the costs. Attitudes serve to direct behavior towards the rewards and away from punishment.

The process by which an individual protects their ego from being threatened by their own negative impulses or threatening thoughts. When an individual derives pleasure from presenting an image of themselves which is in line with their self-concept and the beliefs that they want to be associated with.

Influence and persuasion

Inoculation theory A vaccine introduces a weak form of a virus that can easily be defeated to prepare the immune system should it need to fight off a stronger form of the same virus.

In much the same way, the theory of inoculation suggests that a certain party can introduce a weak form of an argument that is easily thwarted in order to make the audience inclined to disregard a stronger, full-fledged form of that argument from an opposing party.

This often occurs in negative advertisements and comparative advertisements—both for products and political causes. Transportation theory psychology Narrative transportation theory proposes that when people lose themselves in a story, their attitudes and intentions change to reflect that story.

The mental state of narrative transportation can explain the persuasive effect of stories on people, who may experience narrative transportation when certain contextual and personal preconditions are met, as Green and Brock [19] postulate for the transportation-imagery model.

Narrative transportation occurs whenever the story receiver experiences a feeling of entering a world evoked by the narrative because of empathy for the story characters and imagination of the story plot. Social judgment theory[ edit ] Main article: Social judgment theory Social judgment theory suggests that when people are presented with an idea or any kind of persuasive proposal, their natural reaction is to immediately seek a way to sort the information subconsciously and react to it.

We evaluate the information and compare it with the attitude we already have, which is called the initial attitude or anchor point.What is Influence? Influence is different from persuasion.

The Challenge

Whenever there is a change in a person’s thoughts, feelings or behavior because of another person’s personality, then influence is .

In order to master the use of influence tactics, one must learn the science of persuasion. Let’s imagine for a second that you have a great new process created for your team, whereby it involves the ability for your team to adopt new approaches and a new way of working.

Now, let’s talk about the nasty cousins of influence: manipulation and coercion. Usually, when people have a negative reaction to the word influence, they are actually conjuring images and ideas about these words.

Persuasion and Influencing Skills See also: Building Charisma. Persuasion skills can be learnt just like any others, and they are a key part of being able to influence others to achieve your goals and objectives.

Ways to Influence and Persuade. Nagging. took the form of experiments performed, for the most part, in my laboratory and on college students. I wanted to find out which psycho-logical principles influence the tendency to comply with a request.

(Read reviews) Apply the principles of psychology from this seminar to influence and persuade others. Bringing about the reaction you want from others and expanding your influence require insights that go beyond the actual process of influencing—and into the psychology of what truly prompts us to say yes or no.

Psychological manipulation - Wikipedia