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Definition[ edit ] Although non-specific concepts of madness have been around for several thousand years, the psychiatrist and philosopher Karl Jaspers was the first to define the three main criteria for a belief to be considered delusional in his book General Psychopathology.
This would be considered a delusion,  unless he were speaking figurativelyor if the belief had a cultural or religious source. Psychosis causes Explaining the causes of delusions continues to be challenging and several theories have been developed.
One is the genetic or biological theory, which states that close relatives of people with delusional disorder are at increased risk of delusional traits. Another theory is the dysfunctional cognitive processing, which states that delusions may arise from distorted ways people have of explaining life to themselves.
A third theory is called motivated or defensive delusions. This one states that some of those persons who are predisposed might suffer the onset of delusional disorder in those moments when coping with life and maintaining high self-esteem becomes a significant challenge.
In this case, the person views others as the cause of their personal difficulties in order to preserve Critical thinking definition nursing positive self-view.
Also, ongoing stressors have been associated with a higher possibility of developing delusions. Examples of such stressors are immigrationlow socioeconomic status, and even possibly the accumulation of smaller daily hassles. Disorder of brain functioning; and 2.
That they are needed to sustain certain delusions was examined by a preliminary study on delusional disorder a psychotic syndrome instigated to clarify if schizophrenia had a dopamine psychosis.
These can be only regarded as tentative results; the study called for future research with a larger population. It is too simplistic to say that a certain measure of dopamine will bring about a specific delusion. Studies show age   and gender to be influential and it is most likely that HVA levels change during the life course of some syndromes.
Dysfunction in evaluations systems localized to the right lateral prefrontal cortex, regardless of delusion content, is supported by neuroimaging studies and is congruent with its role in conflict monitoring in healthy persons.
Abnormal activation and reduced volume is seen in people with delusions, as well as in disorders associated with delusions such as frontotemporal dementiapsychosis and lewy body dementia. Furthermore, lesions to this region are associated with "jumping to conclusions", damage to this region is associated with post-stroke delusions, and hypometabolism this region associated with caudate strokes presenting with delusions[ citation needed ].
The aberrant salience model suggests that delusions are a result of people assigning excessive importance to irrelevant stimuli. In support of this hypothesis, regions normally associated with the salience network demonstrate reduced grey matter in people with delusions, and the neurotransmitter dopaminewhich is widely implicated in salience processing, is also widely implicated in psychotic disorders[ citation needed ].
Specific regions have been associated with specific types of delusions. Capgras delusions have been associated with occipito-temporal damage and may be related to failure to elicit normal emotions or memories in response to faces.
Delusions are deemed bizarre if they are clearly implausible and not understandable to same-culture peers and do not derive from ordinary life experiences. A delusion that, though false, is at least technically possible, e. Though, a plausible reality.
Any delusion with content consistent with either a depressive or manic state, e. Although delusions can have any theme, certain themes are more common. Some of the more common delusion themes are: False belief that one does not exist or has died.
False belief that a spouse or lover is having an affair, with no proof to back up their claim. Ungrounded feeling of remorse or guilt of delusional intensity. Belief that another thinks through the mind of the person. False belief that another person is in love with them.
Belief that the affected person is a god or chosen to act as a god. Delusion whose content pertains to bodily functioning, bodily sensations or physical appearance.
Usually the false belief is that the body is somehow diseased, abnormal or changed. Delusion in which one feels infested with insectsbacteriamitesspiderslicefleaswormsor other organisms.
Person strongly believes they are financially incapacitated. Although this type of delusion is less common now, it was particularly widespread in the days preceding state support.
The delusions are generally fantastic, often with a supernaturalscience-fictionalor religious bent. This is generally due to excessive priderather than any actual delusions.Summer Abu Dhabi NURSE 28 Enhancing Your Professional Nursing Practice Through Critical Reflection by Shaun D Bowden RN Cert-TESOL Dip FlMan BN MN(AdvPrac) Head, Nursing Education Mafraq Hospital.
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